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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

Genotoxic and cytotoxic biomonitoring in patients exposed to full mouth radiographs – A radiological and cytological study

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Mamata Dental College and Hospital, Khammam, Telangana, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Private Practitioner, Ramanthapur, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Sunitha Kesidi
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Mamata Dental College and Hospital, Giriprasad Nagar, Khammam - 507 002, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jomr.jomr_47_16

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Background: In the past decades, X-rays have been used widely for diagnosis in dentistry. However, it is well-known that ionizing radiation causes damage (including single- and double-strand breaks) to DNA and DNA–protein crosslinks and induces cellular death. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by X-rays is necessary to identify the degree of cancer risk and minimize potential risks to patients and clinicians. Objectives: To evaluate and compare mutagenicity (micronucleus) and cytotoxicity (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and karyolysis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells of patients following conventional full mouth series of radiographs. Study Design: The study group consisted of 30 patients exposed to conventional full mouth radiographs. Materials and Methods: Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa and gingiva of the study group just before exposure to X-rays and 10 days after exposure to X-rays. The samples were stained with the paponicolaou method and accessed for micronuclei and karyolysis, pyknosis, and karyorrhexis. Results: The mean micronuclei frequency in buccal mucosa and gingiva of the group was increased after exposure but the difference was not significant statistically (P > 0.05). The mean of other nuclear alterations indicating cytotoxicity after exposure to full mouth radiographs was significant (P < 0.05). There was significant difference in micronuclei and other nuclear alterations after exposure on comparing buccal mucosa with gingiva, with the mean of difference being high in buccal mucosa than the gingiva. Conclusion: Dental diagnostic radiographs can induce significant cytotoxicity, and to some extent, genotoxic effect after exposure, hence, they have to be advised only when necessary and avoid frequent exposure of full mouth radiographs on the same patient.

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