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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2022
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-28

Online since Thursday, April 21, 2022

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Radiological and nonradiological methods of dental and skeletal age assessment: A narrative review p. 1
Ashima Tyagi, Nikhil Srivastava, Vivek Rana, Noopur Kaushik
Age is one of the essential factors which play an important role in every aspect of life. Importance of age determination is related to many fields including treatment planning and drug delivery in pediatric dentistry, orthodontics, forensic sciences, and also in individuals who provide inaccurate details of age as in cases of illegal immigrants and in the corpse of unknown identity. The age estimation methods at different stages of life consist of a physical examination, radiographic examination of the hand bones and cervical vertebrae, and dental examination using two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging. The different dental age estimation methods used are morphological, biochemical, and radiological methods. These methods have inborn advantages and disadvantages. Other than dental age, skeletal age has also been used to determine a child's development as skeletal maturity is closely related to the craniofacial growth. Correlation of the dental and skeletal ages with the chronological age of children helps clinicians to estimate the growth left in the child and the possible treatment that can be carried out utilizing it. This article critically reviews various dental and skeletal aspects of age estimation from infancy to adulthood with its scope and limitation.
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Quantitative analysis of masseter muscle hardness with shear-wave elastography: Preliminary study on comparison between during rest and contraction in young adults p. 8
Yoshiyuki Minami, Ichiro Ogura
Background: Ultrasound examination is one of the widespread diagnostic imaging methods and still a developing method, which underwent an intense development for biomechanical evaluation of muscles important in temporomandibular disorders, muscle injuries, and training. Aims: This study aims to analyze masseter muscle hardness with shear-wave elastography, especially comparison between during rest and contraction in young adults. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven volunteers (20 men and 17 women; mean age 25.0 years [age 22–43 years]) were examined by shear-wave elastography with a 14-MHz linear transducer. The shear elastic modulus and thickness of masseter muscles with ultrasonography were compared between during rest and contraction, and between men and women using Mann–Whitney U-test. The statistical analysis of the relationships between contraction and during rest was compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test. P < 0.05 indicates significant differences. Results: Shear elastic modulus data of masseter muscles at contraction were significantly higher than those at during rest (P < 0.001). The thickness of masseter muscles at contraction was significantly higher than those at during rest (P < 0.001). Shear elastic modulus data of masseter muscles at during rest were not a significant difference between men and women (P = 0.402). Similarly, shear elastic modulus data of masseter muscles at contraction were not a significant difference between men and women (P = 0.223). Conclusions: Shear-wave elastography could be an effective tool for the quantitative analysis of masseter muscle hardness.
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Awareness of radiation protection among dental practitioners in UP and NCR region, India: A questionnaire-based study p. 13
Abhilash Panwar, Swati Gupta, Kamarthi Nagaraju, Sangeeta Malik, Sumit Goel, Abhinav Sharma
Background: Biological effects of radiation include deterministic and stochastic effects. Dental colleges still follow radiation protection principles due to guidelines laid by the Dental Council of India and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, but private practitioners sometimes are negligent about the significance of radiation protection. The study focuses on the awareness of radiation protection among dental practitioners based on their knowledge, attitude, and application. Aim and Objectives: The aim and objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of awareness and attitude about radiation protection among dental practitioners in Uttar Pradesh and the NCR region, India. Materials and Methods: The survey was performed on dental practitioners from UP and NCR region, India. The survey comprised two sections: one section on basic information of the dentists and their working place, consisting of two questions. The second section consisted of 21 questions regarding patient and personnel protection methods and knowledge about radiation exposure. The questionnaire was disseminated through Google Forms. Results: Among 200 dentists, 84% use Radio visual graph (RVG) in their clinics. Ninety percent of the specialists attended the basic lecture on radiation exposure, nearly 50% of the dentists use digital receptors in pediatric patients, 86% of the specialists use their hands when adjusting the X-ray tube, 98.4% of the dentists know the related complications of radiation, 46.8% of the specialists explain the radiation measures to the patients, 76.2% of the dentists use lead barriers in their clinics, and 76.2% of the clinicians often get their X-ray machines serviced yearly. Conclusion: The current study shows the utmost need for further implementation of radiation protection. The majority of dentists are negligent in practicing radiation protection procedures properly. Emphasis on radiation safety and mandatory professional education is needed.
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Pre-implant evaluation of quantity and quality of mandibular bone in male diabetes mellitus patients using cone-beam computed tomography: A case–control study p. 19
Anuja Kammari, Komali Garlapati, K Ajaykartik, Ancy V Ignatius, B Elizabeth Surekha, Asra Saba
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate and compare the quantity and quality of mandibular bone in the first molar region in male type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with healthy controls using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging technique. The bone characteristics in T2DM patients were correlated with diabetes duration. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 male diabetic patients and 25 nondiabetic male patients with missing mandibular 1st molar, in the age group ranging from 35 to 60 years. HDX WILL CBCT machine utilized to obtain CBCT images. Bone density and quantitative linear measurements were performed in OnDemand software, along with glycated hemoglobin levels of diabetic patients. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software version 20.0. Results: Type 2 diabetic patients had greater bone density as compared to controls. The height of bone is less in diabetic patients than in nondiabetics, and other quantitative linear measurements were found similar in both groups. Conclusion: This study concluded that CBCT can be used in preimplant planning and helps the clinician assess bone measurements and bone density.
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