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   2021| September-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 3  
    Online since January 13, 2022

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Prevalence of distal caries in the second mandibular molar among the general population in Mexico and its relationship with the position and angulation of the adjacent third molar
Elan Ignacio Flores-Orozco, Diaz-Pena Rogelio, Victor Melesio Barron-Crespo, Bernat Rovira-Lastra, Jordi Martinez-Gomis
September-December 2021, 9(3):63-70
Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of distal caries in the mandibular second molar (M2M) in a general population and to determine the strength of the association of several factors related to the adjacent mandibular third molar (M3M). Subjects and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study assessed digital panoramic radiographs of 753 individuals prescribed for screening and/or diagnostic purposes by different specialists. From these radiographs, 1358 M2Ms/M3Ms were included in the analysis. Age, sex, position, and inclination of the M3Ms with respect to the M2Ms and presence of distal caries in the M2Ms were assessed. Continuous variables were dichotomized using optimal cutoff values using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: A multivariate logistic regression model was performed. Results: In total, 8.2% (95% confidence interval 6.7 to 9.6%) of the M2Ms had distal caries. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that >22.5 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 3.42), >4.2 mm between the M2M and M3M (OR 2.67), >31.6° inclination of the M3M (OR 2.12) and the right side (OR 1.61) were positively associated with M2M distal caries. Conclusions: The prevalence of M2M distal caries can range from 6.7% to 9.6% in the general population. M3Ms separated more than 4.2 mm and mesioangulated more than 31.6° with respect to their adjacent M2Ms were 2.7- and 2.1-fold more likely to develop distal caries in their adjacent M2Ms.
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The application of Hounsfield units in the differentiation of odontogenic benign lesions: A systematic review
Luciana Munhoz, Emiko Saito Arita
September-December 2021, 9(3):71-79
Context: Odontogenic lesions comprise a broad range of cysts and neoplasms. Often, multislice computed tomography (MCT) is requested before odontogenic lesions surgical treatment. Hounsfield units (HU) are a quantitative measurement of tissue radiodensity that could be applied in the differentiation of these lesions. Aims: This systematic literature review addresses the use of HU obtained by MCT in the evaluation of benign odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched and original research studies or case report manuscripts published up to April 2021 were included. The keywords “MCT” OR “multidetector computed tomography” OR “helicoidal computed tomography” OR “Hounsfield” OR “computed tomography number” combined with the keywords “maxillofacial pathology,” “oral pathology,” “dental tissue neoplasms,” “odontogenic cysts” were used, “odontogenic tumors,” and the histological denomination of benign odontogenic lesions according to the World Health Organization classification was applied. Only English language manuscripts and studies pertaining to HU were selected. Results: Nine investigations (six original articles and three case reports) regarding distinct benign odontogenic lesions were included in the review. Conclusions: The application of HU as a complementary tool in the assessment of odontogenic lesions is little explored by researchers but could be a useful tool in the differentiation of odontogenic lesions as the few studies available in the literature have already succeeded in differentiating between specific types of lesions. This systematic review is registered at the National Institute for Health Research International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). Registration number: CRD42019116888.
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Predictive validity of ultrasonography for orbital lesions in a tertiary care teaching center in South India: A cross-sectional study
Karthikeyan Kannan, Naveen Durairaj
September-December 2021, 9(3):57-62
Background: The superficial location of the eye and its cystic composition make ultrasound ideal for imaging the eye. Ultrasonography (US) provides highly informative images and is a noninvasive, low-cost, and well-tolerated diagnostic technique. Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the predictive validity of ultrasonography in diagnosing orbital lesions. Materials and Methods: The study population consists of 85 patients with orbital lesions who attended the department of radiology and imaging during the study period. All clinical and ultrasound examinations were performed by a single investigator to identify ocular lesions. A linear high-frequency probe (5-9 MHz) of the LOGIQ P5 ultrasound system was used for the study. Histopathological and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging were used as applicable for final diagnosis. Diagnostic statistics such as sensitivity and specificity have been used to find the correlation of CT scan with the final diagnosis. coGuide was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 85 participants, 42 (49%) were male and the remaining 43 (51%) were female. Ultrasound showed an overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 94.2%, 98.8%, and 94.9% for ocular pathologies and 98.8%, 99.2%, and 95.2% for extraocular pathologies, respectively. Conclusion: US had overall high diagnostic validity and accuracy in localizing and characterizing orbital pathologies. Further evaluation with higher cross-sectional imaging modalities (CT) was indicated in certain cases; for the evaluation of bony involvement, extension to adjacent structures, and intracranial extensions.
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